欢迎访问中国留学人才发展基金会!
热门关键字:  人才  留学  中国  走出去  留学事业部
当前位置:主页 > 抗疫行动 > 抗疫英雄谱 >

全球抗疫英雄谱——奋战在国际抗击新冠肺炎(COVID-19)一线的医护人员

时间:2021-03-31 08:38:45 来源:中国留学人才发展基金会 作者:宣传联络部

 

112

 

 

欧洲疾病预防控制中心负责人安德莉亚·阿蒙(Andrea Ammon):欧洲应该为应对第二波疫情做好准备

 

 

安德莉亚·阿蒙Andrea Ammon)是欧洲疾病预防控制中心负责人,负责维护德国的监控系统,协调国家疫情应对小组抗击新出现的感染,并为政府各部委国会议员和公众提供科学建议

5月底,阿蒙博士指出,欧洲即将迎来第二波疫情已不再是遥不可及的理论,欧洲各国应该为此做好准备“我认为,目前最重要的问题就是第二波疫情何时会暴发,疫情的影响范围会有多大

疫情暴发以来,德国政府顾问阿蒙在接受英国媒体的首次采访时坦白“从有关人口免疫的角度看,通过观察病毒的特征,不同国家情况并不乐观,介于2%和14%之间,意味着85%至90%的人仍然容感染。这种病毒一直在我们周围传播。我们应该看清实际情况,现在不是我们应该放松的时候。

5月初,欧洲各国政府已经开始放宽限制性措施,其中一些国家规定酒吧和餐馆可以重新开放,而另一些国家则发布了试探性的规定

阿蒙博士的工作是仔细监控疫情情况,尽早发现所有感染上升的情况。她在过去两个月一直在家办公,通过通讯软件,在家里的厨房与同事们进行交流。她坚持认为,如果人们遵守防疫规定并保持社交距离,第二波疫情并非不可避免。“我想人们现在开始紧张了。我们看到的,一方面是中小企业的经济部分,另一方面是人们无法享受自由的问题:人们无法像平时一样,他们喜欢的地方,与喜欢的人在一起。疫情让我们的生活方式发生了根本性的改变。尤其是感染人数出现明显下降时,人们认为疫情已经结束了,但事实并不是这样的

当被问及数据是否能够带来影响时,阿蒙博士给出了一个严肃的答案数据还未显示出任何影响。我的意思是,这种情况可能永远不会出现,也许所有措施的调整都是以谨慎的方式进行的。我们现在正在密切监控的事情就是:我们实施了所有这些措施之后发生什么

根据欧洲疾病预防控制中心提供的数据截至5月20,在欧盟英国挪威列支敦士登和冰岛158134人死于新冠肺炎。英国死亡人数高达35341人是欧洲死亡人数最高的国家其次是意大利(32169人)和法国(28022人)。该中心共公布1324183例病例。其中包括阿蒙博士自己的员工。阿蒙博士回忆说,直到1月下旬,人们才逐渐相信新型冠状病毒可以在人与人之间传播

由于这种病毒具有极强的传染性,因此欧洲疾病预防控制中心在1月26日向各国政府建议,应着力加强提供卫生服务的能力。“我们确实强调,各国应该更新此类计划,尤其是要研究医院的准备情况,通常是研究如何确保医院的容纳能力,保证医院能够提供足够的床位,尤其是重症监护病房的床位

阿蒙博士确信新冠肺炎疫情的斗争将是一个漫长的过程。她向那些渴望假期出行的人发出警告:“我认为他们应该做好失望的准备,即使有些国家放宽了限制性措施,人们能够去一些想去的地方,但也无法与去年相比。鉴于目前的疫情情况,出行的人们应该坚持定期洗手,并与周围的人保持距离。因为完全健康的人也有被感染或是发展成重症患者的风险。我们已经知道当欧洲10%的人口感染新冠肺炎后会发生什么,我认为我们应该保持警惕,防止另外90%的人口受到感染。

 

 

 

Europe should brace for second wave, says EU coronavirus chief

 

The prospect of a second wave of coronavirus infection across Europe is no longer a distant theory, according to the director of the EU agency responsible for advising governments – including the UK – on disease control. 

“The question is when and how big, that is the question in my view,” said Dr Andrea Ammon, director of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). 

It has been the unenviable task of scientists to tell it as it is through the coronavirus pandemic. While politicians have been caught offering empty reassurances, the epidemiologists, a job title new to many, have emerged as the straight shooters of the crisis, sometimes to their detriment. 

And Ammon, a former adviser to the German government, speaks frankly in her first interview with a UK newspaper since the crisis began. 

“Looking at the characteristics of the virus, looking at what now emerges from the different countries in terms of population immunity – which isn’t all that exciting, between 2% and 14%, that leaves still 85% to 90% of the population susceptible – the virus is around us, circulating much more than January and February … I don’t want to draw a doomsday picture but I think we have to be realistic. That it’s not the time now to completely relax.” 

Earlier this month the former hospital doctor, who worked through the various levels of healthcare bureaucracy to be become ECDC director in 2017, announced that, as of 2 May, Europe as a whole had passed the peak of infections. Only Poland was technically not yet there, she said. 

European governments have started easing their lockdown restrictions, some to the extent that bars and restaurants will soon reopen, others rather more tentatively. Boris Johnson has tweaked his message to Britons from “stay at home” to “stay alert” and is seeking to send pupils back into schools in a fortnight. 

Ammon’s job is to scrutinise the fallout and catch any rise in infections early. Talking through Skype from her kitchen at home, from where she has been working remotely for the last two months, she insists a disastrous second wave is not inevitable if people stick to the rules and keep their distance. 

But she detects an ominous weakening of the public’s resolve. 

“I think now it’s beginning to strain. What we see is that, on the one hand, the economic part for small and medium-sized businesses but also the experience of people not being able to exercise all the freedoms that we normally have: to go where we like, to be with whom we want to be. And this is a quite fundamental change to our normal way of life. 

“And especially now when it is clear [infections] are going down, people think it is over. Which it isn’t, which it definitely isn’t.” 

Asked whether the data was showing any repercussions, Ammon gave a deadpan answer. “Not yet. I mean, maybe it doesn’t come ever, maybe all the adjustment of these measures is done in a prudent way. This is something we are really right now are closely monitoring: what is happening after all these measures.” 

As of Wednesday 158,134 people have died from Covid-19 in the EU and the UK, Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland, according to ECDC data for the countries the agency monitors. 

The UK has the highest level of deaths in Europe, with 35,341, followed by Italy (32,169) and France (28,022). 

A total of 1,324,183 cases of infection have been reported. Among those is a member of Ammon’s own staff. Only a skeleton group of fewer than 10 now work in the agency’s office in Stockholm. 

“Part of our crisis team that needs to be there because they need very close cooperation. But they’re sitting wide apart. Honestly. We have to do what we preach.” 

Ammon recalls that it was only in late January that it had become clear that a novel virus causing a cluster of deaths in the Chinese city of Wuhan could be transmitted human to human, with initial concerns focusing on the possibility of the disease spreading through imports. 

As the extremely contagious nature of the virus emerged, the ECDC advised governments on 26 January to strengthen the capacities of their health services. There was fear of them being overwhelmed, as was shortly to be the case with tragic results in Lombardy in northern Italy. 

“We did really emphasise that these plans have to be updated. And in particular, the hospital preparedness needs to be looked at, how to make sure to have a surge capacity for beds, in general, but also in particular for intensive care unit beds. 

“I think what turned out is that [the governments] underestimated, in my view, the speed of how this increase came. Because, I mean, you know, it’s a different situation if you have to look for an increased capacity of beds within two weeks or within two days.” 

Ammon believes that when the inevitable inquiries look into the twists and turns of the crisis, the return of holidaymakers from Alpine skiing breaks in the first week of March will be seen as a pivotal moment in the spread of Covid-19 into Europe. 

“Because at that time we saw that new cases all over Europe [and] actually [they] had been in the skiing places in the Alps, in Italy, Austria. I mean this is a crowded place, the ski resorts, and then you have these cabins that you go up the mountain and these are really crammed. Yeah, it’s just perfect for such a virus. I mean I am pretty sure that this contributed to the wide spread in Europe.” 

Lockdowns followed – a theoretical possibility in the pandemic planning that few believed was feasible. “I remember when China put the lockdown to Wuhan, people told me, ‘Look this wouldn’t be possible in Europe.’ Hmm.” 

Now the lockdowns were straining the public’s tolerance, she said, but questioned whether they still came in too late and whether swifter action could have saved more lives. “I believe if we would have put in these measures earlier, it might have been possible, but … these measures are so stark, I mean they are so out of our experience that it, I think it needed … unfortunately the situation in northern Italy to make everybody clear that it is necessary.” 

Ammon now believes the battle with coronavirus will be a long haul. “I don’t know whether it’s forever but I don’t think it will go away very quickly. It seems to be very well adapted to humans.” 

She is yet to book a summer holiday and warns those craving a break away to prepare for some disappointment. “What we are saying is that they should be prepared that even if there are some holidays and they go somewhere, it will not be comparable to what they had last year. At this stage we cannot say you can go out there, wash your hands and everything is fine. You have to keep your distance. These measures have to be in place.” 

But despite the privations of recent months, Ammon expresses little sympathy for the argument put forward by some, including the former supreme court judge Jonathan Sumption that merely shielding the elderly would have been sufficient. 

“People who are perfectly healthy are also getting severe illness and they die. Knowing what we have seen in Europe with approximately 10% of the population [infected] I think there is for me not an option to let this go. If the the other 90% would have come as well, I think we don’t want to think of this.”

 

来源:The Guardian, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

 

温馨说明:本栏目中文内容由我会根据来源处内容整理并翻译。

(责任编辑:宣传联络部)
关于我们 | 联系我们 | 网站地图 |版权声明
中国留学人才发展基金会 版权所有2010-2020
增值电信业务(ICP,SP)经营许可证 | 京ICP备10218477号-1 | 京公网安备11010502032309号